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О. Chesnokova1
  • 1 Lomonosov Moscow State University. Faculty of psychology, 11, st. 9 Mokhovaya str., Moscow, Russia, 125009

The Category of the Subjective and the Issue of the Relation of the External and the Internal in S. Kierkegaard (in Russian)

2016. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 519–537 [issue contents]
The article poses an attempt to define place and meaning of S. Kierkegaard’s ideas in the general context of history of psychological science. The justification is made for understanding the works by S. Kierkegaard as an independent, original program of psychology, along with the programs by W. Wundt, F. Brentano, I.M. Sechenov. The role of existential philosophy and psychology of S. Kierkegaard is underlined as a methodological platform of the modern existential psychology. The subject of the study is the understanding by S. Kierkegaard of category ‘subjective’. The thesis by S. Kierkegaard is explored about the subjective as the ‘inner hidden’ of the becoming subject, as well as his notion about the characteristic of the relationship between the outer and the inner. The conception of the subjective by S. Kierkegaard is compared with the understanding of the subjective in the classic introspective and objective psychology. The comparative analysis is given for the problem of correspondence between the outer and the inner in S. Kierkegaard’s existential psychology and in activity approach. Similarity (the pathos of the inner by S.L. Rubinshtein) and differences of both approaches are noted, associated with consistent determinism and socio-historical understanding of the nature of personality and individuality in works by representatives of activity approach. The S. Kierkegaard’s position is clarified on the issue of method of cognition of the inner Other. The S. Kierkegaard’s characteristics of subjective and objective thinking is reconstructed, the importance for psychology of differentiation between these two types of cognition is substantiated. The relationship of S. Kierkegaard’s ideas with topical tendencies of the modern psychology is traced: with the development of qualitative methodology, non-classical and post-non-classical paradigms in psychology, with overcoming of strict determinism in favor of principle of freedom, postulate of principal uncertainty of being and successful development of existential psychology.
Citation: Chesnokova, M. (2016) The Category of the Subjective and the Issue of the Relation of the External and the Internal in S. Kierkegaard. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 13(3), 519-537 (in Russian)
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