Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 2018 (3) en-us Copyright 2018 Wed, 19 Sep 2018 12:23:20 +0300 Editorial Approval of Group Hierarchy: Russian Version of Social Dominance Orientation Scale The article describes the Russian version of Social Dominance Orientation Scale (Pratto et al., 1994). The structure, reliability and validity of three variants of the scale were studied: scale for measurement of general social dominance (Study 1), of dominance in interethnic (Study 2) and international (Study 3) relationships. Two thousand thirty five respondents took part in the studies (N1 = 512, N2 = 204, N3 = 1319). They filled in full versions of the scales, which comprised 16 items. Respondents were to agree or disagree with each statement on a 7-score scale (from 1 – “completely disagree” to 7 – “completely agree”). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model, where items formed 2 closely interrelated sub-factors, better fitted the data, than models, where all items were summed in one scale. Moreover, it was found that models, which comprised 10 items, better fitted the data, than models with 16 items (Study 1: χ2 = 121.737*, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.050;  Study 2: χ2 = 42.411, CFI=0.988, RMSEA =0.035; Study 3: χ2 = 134.225, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.047). Further analysis demonstrated that 10-items models have good indices of configural validity. In whole, the acquired results show that the short versions of the Social Dominance Orientation Scales correspond to the theoretical model, are reliable, valid and can be used in empirical research. Hostile and Benevolent Attitudes toward Men: Psychometric Properties of the Russian Version of the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory The Russian adaptation of the scale for estimating ambivalent attitudes toward men by P. Glick and S. Fiske is presented in the paper. The process of adaptation consisted of three stages and the full and short versions of the questionnaire were examined: the factor structure, the consistency of scales, and the structural and external validity were analyzed. In Study 1, an original inventory was translated into the Russian language and a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the model of six factors, which formed two more general factors: hostility and benevolence, fitted the data well. However, further analysis indicated some problems with the formulation of items due to the cultural specifics. In Study 2, we examined the modified version of the Russian version of the AMI and created the short version. Results showed that this measure has adequate psychometric properties. In Study 3, we reproduced the results of the previous study on heterosexual and bisexual samples and examined the predictors of the AMI scales. The results demonstrated the stability of the factor structure of the scale in groups of people with different sex and sexual orientation, its internal consistency and validity. However, they showed that the short version of the questionnaire (12 statements) better corresponds to the empirical data than the long version (20 statements) does. The obtained results allow the Russian-language version of AMI to be considered as a reliable and valid tool for assessing ambivalent attitudes toward men. Sexism towards Women: Adaptation of the Ambivalent Sexism Scale (P. Glick and S. Fisk) on a Russian Sample The article presents the Russian adaptation of the Ambivalent Sexism Scale by P. Glick and S. Fisk. This tool measures not only hostile (a tendency to negatively appraise women that violate traditional gender roles), but also benevolent (a tendency to positively appraise women, who comply with the traditional gender roles) sexism. In the approbation of the scale 1624 Russian citizens took part. The full version of the scale demonstrated satisfactory fit to the empirical data, due to more covariance between the items. On the basis of the found covariance between the items, a short version was formed. The short version of the scale comprised 12 items (6 for the subscale of the hostile sexism and 6 for the subscale of the benevolent sexism), it demonstrated a good fit to the empirical data (χ2 = 332.147, df = 53, RMSEA = 0.057, CFI = 0.960, TLI = 0.950). Multigroup analysis demonstrated full structural and factorial equivalence with the use of the short version of the scale on the sample of men and women, as well as heterosexuals and people with non-heterosexual identification. Social-demographical differences were found with the use of the short version of the scale. Men and heterosexuals in a stronger degree, than women and non-heterosexuals, demonstrate hostile and benevolent sexism, people older than 30 in a stronger degree show benevolent sexism, than younger respondents. In the whole the presented variant of the short version of the scale demonstrates good psychometric indices and can be used for further studies as a reliable and valid instrument. Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Attitude to War as a Means of Solving International Conflicts The article describes the authors’ tool to measure attitudes towards war as a means to solve international conflicts. Its construction passed two main steps. On the first step a number of items were formulated, which reflected the perception of various aspects of war. Then those items were chosen that constituted the final version of the questionnaire. The developed questionnaire comprised 6 factors (effectiveness of war, moral justification of war, economic aftermath of war, social aftermath of war, positive humanitarian aftermath of war, negative humanitarian aftermath of war), which add into a unified factor of general attitudes towards war. In the Study 1 (N=978) the results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the version of the questionnaire that comprised 12 items demonstrated satisfactory fit to the empirical data. The multigroup analysis demonstrated structural equivalence with the use of the questionnaire in two samples: 1) man and women; 2) people older and younger than 30 years. It was found that men have more positive attitudes towards war, than women, and people younger than 30 bear more positive attitudes that those who are older than 30. Positive links of attitudes towards war with the level of right-wing authoritarianism and orientation towards social dominance in the realm of international relationships were established. In the present study the alpha Cronbach’s of the questionnaire of attitudes towards war was high (α = .87). How to Measure Perceived Political Efficacy? A Three-Component Scale The aim of this study is to develop and examine a scale that measures three components of perceived political efficacy: personal, collective and external. Twelve statements were formulated based on four abilities: 1) ability to influence the enactment of new laws and political decisions, 2) ability to facilitate the election of a political leader, 3) ability to demand that existing laws and political decisions be observed and 4) ability to express any political opinions freely and publicly. Data was collected online via social media from Russian, Kazakh and Ukrainian samples (N = 2,184) between 2015 and 2017. The scale’s structural validity was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Results showed that with some modification the short version of the proposed model exhibits good fit indexes across all samples. Configural, metric and scalar invariance of the short version of the Perceived Political Efficacy Scale was also successfully tested. Additionally, differences in political efficacy between certain age groups were discovered, as well as between countries. Namely, people in the 30+ age bracket exhibited higher political efficacy than those in the 18–19 age bracket. Ukrainian respondents showed significantly higher personal and collective efficacy when compared to Russian and Kazakh respondents. Kazakh respondents exhibited the highest level of external efficacy. Validation of the Russian-Language Version of the Ethics Position Questionnaire The results of validation of the Russian version of D. R. Forsyth’s Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) are presented. The original version of the questionnaire contains two orthogonal factors (idealism and relativism) that form the basis of taxonomy of ethical positions (situationism, absolutism, subjectivism and exceptionism). The article suggests that idealism and relativism should be considered as behavioral dispositions. In this study, several theoretical models have been verified by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The CFA revealed that a two-level structural model where idealism and relativism are orthogonal second-order factors has the best fit. Idealism includes such factors as focus on reducing harm (I1) and concern for good (I2), and relativism includes such factors as relativity of ethic systems (R1), interpersonal relativism (R2) and veracity (R3). The received model has a number of advantages. First, it fully corresponds to the theoretical model of D. R. Forsyth, including the orthogonality of the main factors. Secondly, it assumes the multidimensionality of the constructs “idealism” and “relativism.” Thirdly, it allows to reconcile the results of previous empirical studies. The research established that the EPQ has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity. The latter was evaluated within the nomological network in which idealism and relativism were correlated with constructs associated with the value system (within the Sh. Schwartz theory of basic values). The results make it possible to consider the Russian version of the EPQ as a reliable and valid instrument of assessment of idealism and relativism. Approbation of Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale in Russian The paper presents the results of approbation of the Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale in Russia. Due to the growing intercultural interaction in a modern global society, it becomes important to study personal characteristics that ensure success during intercultural communication. Cultural intelligence is the capability of an individual to act and communicate effectively in culturally diverse settings. According to the concept of C. Earley and S. Ang, cultural intelligence consists of four factors: metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral. Differentiated structure of each factor of cultural intelligence, proposed later, enabled a more detailed study of this phenomenon. 1545 respondents completed the Russian version of the E-CQS. According to the results of our approbation, the E-CQS can be considered a reliable and valid psychodiagnostic tool in Russia. Research on a representative Russian sample revealed good consistency and test-retest reliability of the E-CQS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a factor structure, which is generally consistent with the original English version. Results on convergent and discriminant validity are in line with published data about the correlation of the main scales of the E-CQS with personal traits measured by the Big Five. Also, new data were obtained on the relationship between cultural intelligence and intercultural sensitivity, tolerance and hardiness. The E-CQS can be used in studies of intercultural communication among Russian speakers.  Development and Adaptation of the Ethno-National Attitudes Scale The article presents the results of approbation of the new survey – Ethno-National Attitudes Scale, aimed to study attitudes towards the phenomenon of “nationality”, which is in the current Russian public discourse is synonymous to ethnicity. Study 1 (N = 1444) showed that the survey contains four subscales: Nationalistic Attitudes (hostile attitudes towards people of other nationalities), Patriotic Attitudes (feelings of pride for one’s own national identity and connection with people of “same nationality”), Neutral Ethno-National Attitudes (indifferent attitude towards one’s own national identity), and Negativistic Attitudes (negative attitude towards the phenomenon of nationality and national identity). Subscales have good internal consistency, as well as configurational and measurement invariance. Three other studies (N = 156, 533 and 982) demonstrated internal validity of the survey. They showed that nationalistic attitudes are positively connected with various forms of intolerance. Patriotic attitudes are linked with negative attitude only towards other ethnic groups, as well as with positive attitude towards own group. Neutral and negativistic ethno-national attitudes are positively connected with various types of tolerance (ethnic, social, personal trait) and attitudes towards other ethnic groups. Thus, the four subscales of the survey measure qualitatively different attitudes towards the phenomenon of “nationality”. These subscales also group into two factors of the second order: nationalistic and negativistic ethno-national attitudes are inversely correlated and form a factor that reflects attitudes towards other nationalities and the phenomenon of nationality per se, while patriotic and neutral ethno-national attitudes reflect national identification of the respondent. Home Environment and Family Attitudes: How Do They Interrelate? In the current paper, the interrelation between the friendliness of the home environment and family attitudes is investigated. The friendliness of the home environment includes three parameters: the number of functions provided by home (functionality), the congruence of these functions with inhabitants’ needs (relevance), and home attachment. We assumed that friendly home environment positively contributes to the inhabitants’ family attitudes, and positive family attitudes, in turn, predict a perceived friendly home image. The sample consisted of 393 participants (295 females and 98 males), students of different faculties of the Higher School of Economics. We used the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire, the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (short version), the Home Attachment Questionnaire, and Attitudinal Familism Scale. The results of the regression analysis show that family attitudes are significantly related with such parameters as the Home Attachment, Pragmatism, Protection, Plasticity, Self-Presentation, Ergonomics,andDevelopment of the home environment. And, vice versa, almost all the parameters of the functionality and relevance of the home environment have been significantly impacted by family attitudes. Home Attachment is significantly mutually related with attitudes towards family. The study’s results can be helpful in designing home environment, in forming individual profiles of preferred home environment preferences, and intensification home’ resource function as a factor of family atmosphere’s improvement. Sex Differences in the Big Five of Personality: Looking through the Attitudes toward Traits Gender differences in personality traits according to the “Big Five” model are reproduced consistently in various studies on different cultures. The reasons for these differences are usually explained in biological and social deterministic theories. The reflective component of personality traits also can serve as their explanation. For example, earlier (Shchebetenko, 2017) it was shown that gender differences in traits can be explained by reflective characteristic adaptations (RCA) – element of  personality, which pertains to awareness and monitoring of one’s individual traits. This effect was stable for all traits except for neuroticism. In the present paper we studied to what extent this configuration of results is non-random and empirically reproducible. Nine hundred six  people aged 17-25 took part in the study, 314 (34.7%) were male. Gender differences were found in agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness: all these traits were higher in women. The hierarchical regression analysis showed that men and women differed in an RCA, namely, in attitudes toward traits, which statistically eliminated gender differences in traits themselves. Such a result questions biological deterministic theories of gender differences in traits. Social strategies of conduct and upbringing of sexes can affect differential evaluation of traits by men and women. Neuroticism is the exception again: as in the previous research, gender differences in this trait were still salient even after controlling for attitude toward it. Probably, behavior of men and women is differed in the degree of manifestation of neuroticism, and these differences are not determined by the reflective appraisals of this trait. Relationships between Time Perspectives and Procrastination of Employees with Different Job Titles This paper describes the current state of the problem of time perspectives and the phenomenon of procrastination in professional activities. The paper is primarily focused on special aspects of time perspectives and procrastination of employees with different job titles. The paper contains an empirical study of the interrelation of time perspective and procrastination of employees with different job titles. The results show that top managers usually focus highly on future time perspectives (59.03) and the positive past (36.06). Their level of procrastination is lower (53.45). Groups of middle managers show high procrastination (57.2); they focus on hedonist present (24.6) and the negative past (31.26). The article proves a statistically significant level of distinctions of procrastination expressiveness on the entire sample (1211 at p≤.01). A connection between life-purpose orientation and time representation was established: the most effective life-purpose orientations for top management were ‘life goals’ (35.28), ‘locus control – life’ (32.7) and ‘sense of purpose of life’ (155.25); in the middle management group these facts are faintly expressed. Correlation analysis using the Spearman’s Rho allowed us to highlight a high level of procrastination in the middle management group determined by their orientation on time perspective of negative past against low focus on the future that complicates the success of professional activities. The regression analysis revealed the main predictors of procrastination in the groups of top managers (aims in life, process of life and locus control-ego) and middle managers (Fatalistic present and future). It may be assumed that personal time perspective and its time orientation are interconnected with procrastination processes and can be considered both negative and positive consequences that aligns with the results of the latest research examining procrastination in professional activities. The Role of Leadership in the Relationship between Collective Organizational Efficacy and Collective Work Engagement The present study analyses the mediating role of transactional and transformational leadership in the relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. The data was collected from 86 employees working in nine Italian companies of the Food & Beverage sector. The questionnaire included three scales: a) collective organizational efficacy (Bohn, 2010); b) collective work engagement (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003); c) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio, 1995). Results showed positive relationship between one component of transactional leadership – contingent reward – and collective work engagement. This result confirms that even if it lacks inspirational appeal in some situations contingent reward could be a rather effective leadership style contributing to employees’ work engagement. Also a positive relationship was found between collective work engagement and three components of transformational leadership – intellectual stimulation, idealized influence (behavior) and idealized influence (attributed) that is consistent with the studies that investigated individual work engagement and leadership. The mediation effects of contingent reward and transformational leadership on the relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement were confirmed. This result has an important practical implication: managers can promote collective work engagement through development of a sense of collective organizational efficacy using not only transformational leadership style but also contingent reward. Directions of future research are discussed. Neural Mechanisms of Post-Decisional Spreading of Alternatives Human choices are not only driven by inner preferences, but also have an impact on behavior. Economists and psychologists have extensively demonstrated that choosing between two attractive options leads to a downgrade of the rejected option and to an upgrade of the chosen one. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the ‘free-choice paradigm’. In the past decade the phenomenon of choice-induced preference change generated by cognitive dissonance has been explored by neuroscientists. An increasing amount of research has highlighted the central role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive dissonance. This area represents the dissonance between one’s currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. However, other brain areas have been linked to cognitive dissonance and its resolution, but as yet the mechanisms underpinning cognitive dissonance and the functional connection among brain areas found involved in cognitive dissonance are still unknown. Here, we firstly review the neural mechanisms and brain areas involved in post-decisional preference change and cognitive dissonance. Secondly, we suggest an integration of the existing neurocognitive mechanism of cognitive dissonance. Finally, we suggest new research lines to further explore neural principles of cognitive dissonance and subsequent post-decisional preference change.