Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 2022 (2) en-us Copyright 2022 Tue, 28 Jun 2022 21:18:55 +0300 Editorial Romantic Attachment as a Predictor of Partners` Dyadic Coping The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical study about the interlinking of partners' romantic attachment and qualities of their dyadic coping. The authors suggested that dimensions of secure romantic attachment have positive effects on dyadic coping in close relationships. Dimensions of insecure romantic attachment, according to the authors` hypotheses, have a negative impact on dyadic coping. The study involved 65 couples (n = 130), men aged 18−57 (M = 26.2; SD = 6.1); women aged 18−35 (M = 23.4; SD = 4.2). There were 25 married couples, and 40 couples being in relationships, among them 18 couples cohabitated, 22 couples were dating. Method: Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment by K.A. Brennan, F.R. Shaver; Dyadic Coping Inventary by G. Bodenmann. It was found that the dimensions of partners’ romantic attachment influence the dyadic coping strategies choice in different directions: enhancing some and reducing others. Dimensions of romantic attachment predict not only the one`s dyadic coping strategies choice, but also the coping strategies choice by their partner. The results obtained in the study allow concluding that partners` dyadic coping has both similar and specific features in men and women. Romantic attachment determines dyadic coping in close relationships. Insecure attachment styles reduce the frequency of choosing dyadic coping strategies in men and women. Secure attachment style increases partners' focus on dyadic coping as a means of stabilizing close relationships. Thus, the stated hypothesis was partially confirmed. Relationships of Emotion Regulation Strategies with Subjective Well-Being and Hardiness: Actor and Partner Effects in Married Couples This paper examines the impact of two strategies of emotion regulation — cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression — on subjective well-being in married couples from the perspective of the actor-partner interdependence model. The sample consisted of 214 married couples with the duration of marriage from a few months to 60 years (M = 11, SD = 11), the age of the spouses ranged from 19 to 72 years (M = 37, SD = 13). We found a significant though low positive similarity between spouses only for cognitive reappraisal (r = 0.13, p < 0.05). For cognitive reappraisal, the actor and partner effects were obtained (double couple-oriented pattern): 1) husband’s and wife’s habitual use of reappraisal  has a positive effect on their own life satisfaction, and hardiness is a mediator of this relationship; 2) husband’s habitual use of reappraisal has a positive effect on wife’s life satisfaction through such a component of hardiness as commitment, whereas wife’s habitual use of reappraisal has a positive effect on husband’s life satisfaction directly. For expressive suppression, only the partner effect was obtained, consisting in the negative effect of husband’s habitual use of suppression on wife’s marital satisfaction, which was more pronounced for the short duration of marriage. In addition, the individual differences in emotion regulation strategies were found: 1) males scored higher on expressive suppression than females; 2) age was positively associated with the use of both strategies of emotion regulation; 3) parental educational attainment was negatively associated with habitual use of suppression in children. The Role of Social Identities in the Choice of a spouse from Another Culture: A Cross-Regional Analysis The article presents the results of the study on the relations of ethnic, civic, religious and place identity with the attitude towards entering into an intercultural marriage. The study conducted in two multicultural Russian regions: the Moscow region and the Republic of Buryatia. The sample included the representatives of three groups: the Russians from the Moscow region (n = 189), the Russians (n = 111) and the Buryats (n = 102) from Buryatia. The attitude towards intercultural marriage had mean scores above average and did not have significant cross-cultural and cross-regional differences. However, differences in the importance of social identities and their impact on attitudes towards intercultural marriage were found. The Russians from Buryatia had more significant ethnic, civic, and religious identities than the Russians from the Moscow region (cross-regional differences). Both the Buryats and the Russians from Buryatia had more significant ethnic, religious and civic identities as compared to Russians living in the Moscow region. The results of structural equation modeling showed that there is a negative relationship between the ethnic identity of the Buryats and their attitude towards interethnic marriage. For Russians from both regions, place identity is positively associated with attitudes towards intercultural marriage. Civic identity predicted attitudes towards intercultural marriage in different ways: the Buryats had a positive relationship, while the Russians of the Moscow region had a negative one. It probably follows from the differing content of civic identity in these groups: for the Russians from the Moscow region, it is closely intertwined with ethnicity, while for the Buryats living in Buryatia, it is a “supra-ethnic” identity that connects them with all citizens of Russia of any ethnicity and religion. Subjective Chronometric Charactetistics of Motor Imagery in Cross Country Skiers of Various Level of Expertise This article investigates the meaning of the chronometric structure through its connection with other features of the mental image, including perspective, accessibility, and the type of cues used, as well as the level of expertise. The study was conducted with the participation of 54 cross-country skiers of the highest possible skill range. The subjects imagined their own performance of the elements of the open field skating technique (total of 11 descriptions). The studied features of imagery were assessed by means of a specially designed questionnaire. In order to determine the level of expertise, expert scores were obtained for the technical execution of the skating technique, as well as the number of cycles in the middle 60 m in two 100 m roller-ski trials, one of which was performed in the dual task settings. Using cluster analysis, the athletes were grouped based on skill level and predominantly used imagery perspective. The study showed that in ~74% of the cases, subjects rated the tempo of their imagery as corresponding to the actual movement; in the remaining cases, static images were 1.5 times more common than slow-motion images. Evidence was obtained to support the conception of static images as of an extreme degree of slowing down for tracking important cues. Chronometrically altered images were more associated with initial and highest skill levels, 1st-person imagery perspective, and appraisal of movement in a non-visual modality based on its structure. These associations indicate to the use of chronometrically altered images as to the means of in-depth subjective analysis of an action. The slow-motion imagery at the initial stages of training with its gradual acceleration to the speed equivalent to the real action is justified. Retention of Verbal and Nonverbal Serial Information in Working Memory This article presents the results of an experimental study of retention in working memory (WM) and subsequent motor reproduction of two types of serial information, verbal (sequence of letters) and non-verbal (broken lines). Series of elements were presented in two modes: statically (all elements are shown simultaneously) and dynamically (the sequence is shown element by element). We investigated the influence of the sequence presentation mode, the sequence complexity (number of its elements) and WM delay period on the accuracy and the latent time (reaction time) of reproduction of the memorized series of elements. The study involved 33 adult right-handed subjects. The following results were obtained. It turned out that the accuracy of reproduction of both types of sequences in a qualitatively similar way depends on the presentation mode and the number of elements: the reproduction is less accurate in the dynamic mode as compared to the static mode, and the accuracy decreases with increasing sequence length in both modes. The use of the dynamic presentation mode has a greater effect on the accuracy of reproduction of broken lines than letter sequences. In contrast, increasing the number of elements reduces the accuracy of letter sequences reproduction more than the accuracy of broken lines reproduction. It was revealed that WM delay period significantly affected the latent time of the motor response only when broken lines but not letter sequences were reproduced. The latent response time increases with an increase in the length of the sequence of letters but does not change with an increase in the number of segments of the broken line. These results points to some differences in the mechanisms of encoding and storage of the verbal and non-verbal serial information in working memory. It seems that verbal information, when compared to non-verbal information, is represented internally to a greater extent as a sequence of elements and, at the same time, undergoes less changes during retention in working memory in the tasks where reproduction of the order of elements is required. Relationship between Identifications and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic and Pedagogical Personnel at the Universities The objective of the study was to identify the presence and nature of the relationship of identifications (personal, interpersonal, micro-group, group, sub-organizational and organizational in terms of their cognitive and affective components) with two types of organizational citizenship behavior (offering quality ideas and suggestions, providing help and support to colleagues) in academic personnel of higher education institutions. The sample consisted of 158 research and pedagogical professionals from seven state universities. Four proprietary questionnaires were used to measure related identifications and a questionnaire to assess two types of organizational citizenship behavior. It was found that group identification by its cognitive component was significantly positively associated with offering quality ideas and suggestions, whereas group identification by its affective component was linked with both manifestations of organizational citizenship behavior. Other identifications were not significantly associated with such behaviors. Another predictor of offering quality ideas and suggestions was the ratio of group identification to organizational identification (by their cognitive component), as well as the ratio of group identification to micro-group and personal identifications (by their affective component). There was a kind of mutual exclusion between the group identification and other identifications in terms of their joint relationship with certain varieties of organizational citizenship behavior. The stronger the group identification and the weaker the other identification was, the stronger was the corresponding citizenship behavior. The obtained results expand our understanding of the relationships between identifications and citizenship behavior of employees in small groups as exemplified by the samples of academic professionals in universities. How Errors in Text Influence Impressions about the Author’s Wit and Intelligence Nowadays, communication is often carried out exclusively through the exchange of text information, so research on how the reader forms an impression about an author seems relevant. Many studies explore the accuracy of impressions about various psychological characteristics of the author and text cues related to these impressions. Such works often use correlational designs and there are practically no attempts to check the influence of certain text features in experimental manipulations. This study explores the issue of how the reader's impression on the wit/intelligence of the author forms. In previous studies we found that respondents often indicate that the presence of errors in the text is important for forming an impression of the author's intelligence. We decided to check whether their presence indeed affects the perceived wit / intelligence. In two studies (N = 40 and N = 167) adult participants read texts written by real people with different levels of intelligence, the texts were presented either with or without spelling and punctuation errors, each category consisted of 4 texts. Respondents were asked to rate how smart the author of the text seems to be using the scale from 1 to 10, as well as a score they would get if they performed an intelligence test. In both studies, a significant albeit small main effect of the variable "spelling and punctuation errors" was found, meaning that errors in a text reduces perceived intelligence of the author, but other features of a text may play a more significant role in shaping the impression. Development of the Ideas of Existentialism and Their Critique in S.L. Rubinstein’s Works In the article the existential motifs in the works of S.L. Rubinstein and his attitude toward existentialism is considered. Since the late 1950s, Rubinstein's views developed in close dialogue with existential philosophical thought. The names of M. Merleau-Ponty, M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre appear in his works. Rubinstein's latest monograph "Man and the world" has a pronounced existential character. In this work, he managed to implement his long-standing project of ontologizing psychology, including a man and his consciousness, into the general structure of being. Ideas expressed by Rubinstein in the last years of his life reveal interesting similarities with the views of the founder of existentialism S. Kierkegaard and in some cases almost literally repeat some statements of the philosophy of M. Heidegger. At the same time, Rubinstein gives a detailed critique of the existential approach concerning the issues of understanding the essence of man as a subject of experience implementing his “project”, the validity of the phenomenological method, and human freedom. The greatest difficulty in interpreting Rubinstein's views is the combination in his theory of his orientation to Marxist methodology with existential statements. The main issue on which Rubinstein does not allow any compromises with existentialism concerns the assessment of the role of objective knowledge. Here he remains loyal to the rationalistic tradition of Hegel and Marx. According to Rubinstein, cognition permeates all forms of human relations with the world, including ethical relations. Cognition of reality transforms existence itself, replacing the spontaneous nature of its development with a conscious one. Despite the ambiguity of Rubinstein's dialogue with existentialists, determined to the great extent by the zeitgeist, it was certainly very important for the development of Russian psychology, introducing a new range of existential issues. Projective Markers of Psychogenic Induction in Children's Drawings in the Situation of Psychological and Pedagogical Expertise In situation of high-conflict divorce, quite often there are disagreements between parents related to the right to raise a child, which is the reason for them to go to court. The court appoints psychological and pedagogical expertise. The expert often observes that the child does not present his beliefs and views, but translates such a position to the separately living parent, which contradicts his true feelings and attitude towards him. In the arsenal of the psychologist, there are no specific diagnostic tools aimed at detecting the indicated phenomenon. This article attempts to search for projective markers of psychogenic induction (a phenomenon in which a parent influences the child's opinion, imposes his position, forming a negative image of the other parent) by analyzing the data obtained using the "Drawing of a nonexistent animal" technique. The study sample consisted of 63 children participating in a forensic psychological and pedagogical examination, and whose parents are in a situation of high-conflict divorce. Highlighted 48 drawing parameters presented in an ordinal scale. Further, a correlation analysis of 48 pictorial features with the variable "presence of psychogenic induction" was carried out. A qualified expert carried out a qualitative assessment of the severity of psychogenic induction. The sample of children was divided according to the severity of psychogenic induction as follows: no sign (0 points) — 39.6%, medium severity (1 point) — 35.9%, pronounced sign (2 points) — 24.5%. The parameter "severity of psychogenic induction" positively correlated with such parameters of a child's drawing, which are the markers of emotional decline, energy conservation, and an aggressive emotional state of the child. Coping Success The article presents an analytical review on the matter of coping success. The concept of success is actively used in the scientific literature on coping with stress and challenging situations, however, a clear definition has not yet been received. The objectives of the article are to describe the criteria, functions and components of successful coping with difficult life circumstances; and to provide rationale for the scheme, which represents stages and components of successful coping. The signs of successful coping are presented; the characteristics of the perceived situation that determine it are highlighted. These characteristics include subjective control and understanding of the situation, forecasting various scenarios for the development of events, including a positive image of the future, and formulating a goal for strong performance. Successful coping is defined as the effective achievement of a difficult life goal and is considered in the contexts of effectiveness, flexibility, personal resources, and cultural specifics. It is shown that successful coping corresponds to a special type of life situations, Tasks, and its functions are to approach the goal through systematic efforts and resistance to one’s own avoidance, as well as to environmental distractions. The central role of the goal of successful coping for its actualization is substantiated, which distinguishes it from proactive coping. Based on the analysis of the results from the projective graphical technique A Scheme of a Difficult Life Situation, the components of successful coping, as well as two types of dealing with difficulties are specified, which are emotional experiencing and complex analysis of the situation. The study is carried out within the framework, which considers coping as a positive process. The scheme of the stages of successful coping and its dynamics is presented in the appendix, and can be used in the psychology training of students, as well as in practical work.  Variety of Possible Selves: The Role of Agency and Empirical Evidence Review Развитие концепции возможного Я привело к появлению новых определений конструкта и его разновидностей. Однако эти разновидности возможного Я далеко не всегда соответствуют первоначальному определению Х. Маркус и П. Ньюриус (1986). Авторы не учитывают проявлений агентности, играющей решающую роль в мотивационной функции возможного Я. Тем временем в литературе появляются несистематизированные концепции различных типов возможного Я. Основная цель статьи — проанализировать существующие типы возможных Я сквозь призму феномена агентности и унифицировать данные о конструкте. В статье рассматриваются наиболее изученные типы возможного Я — желаемое возможное Я, избегаемое возможное Я, наилучшее возможное Я, саморегуляционное и самосовершенствующее возможное Я, потерянное возможное Я, совместное возможное Я, а также невозможное Я. Обобщение данных в этой области необходимо для будущего развития теории, поскольку уже сейчас существуют некоторые заблуждения, возникающие по причине свободной интерпретации изначально вполне конкретного конструкта. В ответ на возникающую путаницу определений предлагается решение в виде систематического литературного обзора с пересмотренными определениями типов возможного Я в зависимости от роли агентности, которая проявляет себя в воплощении того или иного возможного Я. Делается вывод о том, что учет потенциала агентности раскрывает процессы, стоящие за различными типами возможных Я.