Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 2019 (2) en-us Copyright 2019 Tue, 02 Jul 2019 00:29:48 +0300 Editorial Integration Policy of Society and Attitudes of the Host Population towards Migrants: A Study in 17 European Countries Migration processes in today’s world are developing rapidly, and different countries respond to this reality in different ways. Some are more open to migrants and their integration, while others are less welcoming. Various effects of integration migration policy, primarily for migrants, were studied in the social sciences. The connection of integration migration policy with the attitudes of ethnic majority towards migrants has been studied less. There is evidence that multicultural policy of society is related to positive attitudes towards migrants and a reduction in perceived threat. On the other hand, there is evidence that the open immigration policy of the society may be resisted by the some representatives of the host population. Based on data from European countries, we examined the relationship between the 8 indicators of immigration policy that make up the integration policy index (MIPEX) and the three variables that characterize attitudes towards migrants and migration (the permissibility of migration, the benefits of migration, institutional support for migration). In the study we used data from the integration migration policy index (MIPEX) for 2014, as well as indicators of attitudes towards migrants in 17 European countries according to the European social survey ESS (more than 30,000 respondents) for 2016. This design allowed us to divide the cause (immigration policy) and the possible consequence (attitudes to migrants). From the ESS data, we have chosen only the answers of the representatives of the ethnic majority. Multilevel structural equation modeling with MPLUS software was used for data processing. The results of the study showed the ambiguity of the relationship of the MIPEX index and its components with different attitudes of the host population towards migrants and migration. The paper discusses which aspects of integration policy (on the example of European data) have a positive and which have negative relations with the attitudes of the host population towards migrants. Intercultural Relations in Georgia and Tajikistan: A Post-Conflict Model The paper presents the results of two studies of intercultural relations in post-Soviet Georgia and Tajikistan. These countries have in common a sharp decline in cultural diversity as a result of wars and conflicts, and this model of intercultural relations on post-Soviet space was identified as a post-conflict model. The goal of this study was to evaluate three hypotheses of intercultural relations: multiculturalism, contact and integration (Berry, 2017) among majority members and the ethnic Russian minorities. We surveyed 312 Ethnic Russians and 298 Georgians in Georgia; 277 Ethnic Russians and 317 Tajiks in Tajikistan. The studies used scales from the MIRIPS questionnaire. To test the three hypotheses of intercultural relations we followed a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The multiculturalism hypothesis found partial support in all four groups in Georgia and Tajikistan. The contact hypothesis received partial support in Tajiks and in Ethnic Russians in Georgia and was not supported among Ethnic Russians in Tajikistan and Georgians. The integration hypothesis was fully supported in Tajiks and Ethnic Russians in Georgia, partially supported among Ethnic Russians in Tajikistan and was not supported among Georgians. The results obtained in these two countries are discussed taking into consideration the sociocultural contexts and recent history of wars and conflicts. Intercultural Relations in Russian Crimea: Empirical Testing of Three Hypotheses This article examines intercultural relations in Crimea - one of the multicultural regions of Russia. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in Crimea: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. The sample included members of the ethnic majority in Crimea, Russians (N= 195), and members of the ethnic minorities, Crimean Tatars (N= 196) and Ukrainians (N= 196). Data processing was carried out using path analysis. We additionally conducted 25 interviews with the members of three ethnic groups to deeper analyze the results of the quantitative study. The results showed partial support for the multiculturalism hypothesis: perceived security was linked with support for a multicultural ideology and integration among Russians and Ukrainians, and support for multicultural ideology among Crimean Tatars, however, there was no significant correlation with tolerance in the three samples. The contact hypothesis was partially confirmed: intercultural contacts predicted support for tolerance among Russians, preference for integration among Ukrainians, and both tolerance and integration among Crimean Tatars. Integration hypothesis was fully confirmed: preference for integration promotes well-being in three samples. However, the preference for separation promoted self-esteem among Crimean Tatars and life satisfaction among three ethnic groups. The results of the research are discussed from the perspective of the socio-cultural and historical context of interethnic relations in Crimea. Religious Identification and Attitude toward Economic Involvement among Christians and Muslims in Russia This study presents the results of empirical research into the relationship between strength and positivity of religious identification and attitudes towards economic behavior in a group of Orthodox Christians and Sunni Muslims in Russia (N=820). In order to measure strength and positivity of religious identification, we used two components based on the Social Identity Theory. Attitudes toward models of economic behavior were measured through economic attitudes based on a scenario approach. The results revealed that attitudes towards three models of economic behavior can be clustered into a single economic involvement factor. In addition, generalized economic involvement was confirmed by CFA in both religious groups. In our study we found that strength and positivity of religious identification are differently associated with attitudes toward economic involvement in the two groups. Thus, it was concluded that the strength of religious identification negatively related to attitudes reflecting economic involvement. Positivity of religious identification was found to have a positive association with economic involvement. However, the further MGSEM demonstrated that the relationship between positivity of religious identification and economic involvement had interfaith specifics: positivity of religious identification was positively related to the models of economic involvement only in the group of Christians, while in the group of Muslims this relationship was insignificant. The results are discussed in terms of features of religious identification in these two groups. Teachers’ Effectiveness at Changing Pupils’ Attitudes towards Migrants: A Field Study in Italy and Russia In this study we examined whether different styles of teachers’ instructions (pro-social vs behavioural) affect the attitudes and beliefs of pre-adolescents towards peers with migrant backgrounds. The research was conducted in two countries: in Italy (N = 93) and in Russia (N = 134) among students in their last year of primary school (M age = 11.27). Teachers provided one in two sets of instructions, highlighting either the welcoming and openness characteristics of the group or its adherence to school-norms.  After receiving this recommendation, pupils read a fictional scenario depicting a fellow student from an undisclosed foreign country, with different cultural features, and who was expected to join that class-group. Children’s opinions were measured through five scales addressing the newcomer's pleasantness, positive and negative attitudes towards the respondents' (ingroup) and the newcomer's group of friends (outgroup). On an individual level, results confirm that pro-social instructions enhance positive traits towards the unknown student at a higher extent. A significant difference was also reported when comparing the two conditions on a group level: favourable characteristics were more prominent in the pro-social condition than in the behavioural one and negative traits, both in the in-group’s and out-group’s projections, were reduced. We discuss the implications of these results with regard to teachers’ impact in modelling social skills and the development of social processes in the school context.  Assessment of the Level of Development of Executive Functions in the Senior Preschool Age The article employs the model of executive functions by A. Miyake to preschool age. The main objective of the research was the approbation of the diagnostic instrument NEPSY-II to assess the level of development of the three main components of executive functions (working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibition) in the Russian preschoolers. The sample consisted of 267 children (143 boys and 124 girls) aged 5–6 (M = 5.6, SD = 0.3), who frequented the senior group of Moscow nursery schools. In the result of comparison of the performance of American and Russian children aged 5–6 years, certain cross-cultural differences were found: remembering images in general is more developed in Russian children, while spatial memory is better in American kids. To verify the convergent validity of the instrument on a partial sample (N = 48), correlation analysis was conducted of the results of two batteries of tests: one that was approbated and one by L.A. Venger. The found correlations confirmed the feasibility to use this instrument for the executive functions assessment. The data analysis showed that the levels of audio-verbal and visual working memory in senior preschoolers are not connected. But audio-verbal working memory is at large the foundation of the development of cognitive flexibility (switching), while visual working memory underlies the inhibition. Based on the results of the assessment four variants of executive functions in senior preschool age were distinguished and described. Children with relatively high level of development of executive functions were arranged in two groups in accordance with orientation: those who sought to perform the tasks faster and those who were focused on quality (avoidance of mistakes). Measure of Chronic Regulatory Focus: Adaptation of T. Higgins Regulatory Fo The adaptation of Regulatory Focus Questionnaire, RFQ for Russian sample is described. According to regulatory focus theory the goal-directed behavior is regulated by two different motivational systems (self-regulation strategic systems) – promotion focus and prevention focus. People with promotion focus strive for positive end-states, gains, use eager means; people with prevention focus strive for security and non-losses and use vigilant means. After back-translating procedure, the factor structure (confirmatory factor analysis), internal reliability and test-retest reliability were explored. Construct validity was explored in the studies of interconnection of chronic regulatory focus and cognitive biases in decision making. The studies were aimed to replicate on a Russian sample the study by Higgins et al., 2001. Overall 536 people (aged 17 to 23) participated in the study (158 in the pilot study, 308 in the main study). The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor orthogonal structure had the best fit (CMIN = 52.580; df = 39; p = .072; GFI = .971; CFI = .957; RMSEA = .034; Pclose = .884). The high internal reliability of both scales ((Cronbach’s a for “Promotion focus” scale 0.77 and for “Prevention focus” scale — 0.78) and temporal stability (4 weeks interval) were shown. The number of questions is equal to the original version of the questionnaire. The overall relationship between promotion and prevention focuses and cognitive biases in decision making was partly shown, which stands for construct validity of the scales. The Russian version of Regulatory Focus Questionnaire can be used in future research in samples aged 17 to 23. At the end, the full text of the questionnaire, the instructions and scores calculation are listed. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Affect Structure Based on the Russian Data The well-known modern dimensional models of affect include two or three dimensions. They are typically based on self-reports using English emotion terms. It remains unclear to what extent these models can be applied to different cultures and languages. The present study is aimed at finding the dimensions underlying the descriptions of emotional states in Russian language and suggests a structural model of affect based on these findings. At the first stage, a comprehensive list of Russian nouns denoting emotional states was compiled. It comprised 330 words and was reduced to a list of 56 words. At the second stage, participants rated their emotional states using this list. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three dimensions that underlay participants’ descriptions of the emotional states – negative affect with low activation, positive affect with high activation, and tension. This structure has at least three notable features. First, valence is not a bipolar factor like in some other structural models of affect. Instead, it splits into two orthogonal factors. Second, valence is somewhat related to arousal, namely positive affect is associated with high arousal and negative affect with low arousal. Third, emotional states related to tension and uncertainty form a separate factor. This factor presumably reflects pure tension independent from any valence. This model can be used for developing Russian-based measures for assessment of mood. The Development of a Method for Studying Goal Setting in Psychotherapy The purpose of the study was to develop a method to assess the different characteristics of goal setting among psychotherapists with varying professional experience, and also to trace the relationship between the parameters of goal setting and the effectiveness of psychotherapy. To do this, a productive methodological basis can be a procedure for the study of professional thinking used in the psychology of expertise. The authors identified the characteristics and conditions of goal setting that contribute to the better achievement of goals. The basis for the development of the method was an assumption that the analysis of someone else’s psychotherapeutic session from an expert position should stimulate the specialist’s ideas about the standard goal setting process. The authors developed a grid of categories for the analysis of structured interview records. Studies using the developed procedure can be carried out in the following areas: 1) identifying the characteristics of goals that are more or less effective in the context of therapy outcomes; 2) studying the transformation of a goal setting process in connection with building up the professional experience of a psychotherapist; 3) revealing the peculiarity of the representation of a client’s problem by psychotherapists with varying degrees of expertise; 4) studying the features of goal-setting and the representation of a client’s problem by psychotherapists of different approaches. The approbation of this methodology for studying goal setting among therapists with more than 10 years of experience allowed us to identify the main characteristics of the problem and target state descriptions that correlate with the effective achievement of psychotherapeutic results, according to other research. Subjective Well-Being of Primary School Students with Different Achievement Levels This study focuses on students’ subjective well-being and the association between subjective well-being and the level of academic achievement in elementary school. Despite the fact that subjective well-being in school is a significant predictor of various life outcomes in adulthood and an indicator of education effectiveness along with academic achievement, it is not sufficiently studied at the elementary school age. Complex models of subjective well-being in school usually include relations with peers, since relationships with classmates are an important indicator of a child's adaptation at school (Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman, 1996) and are able to predict subjective well-being at school (Tian, Tian, & Huebner, 2016). We can distinguish two aspects of relations with classmates – cooperation and hostility, which associate with academic achievement. In this study, the level of academic achievement was examined with the SAM-math test (Student Achievement Monitoringin Mathematics) (Nezhnov, Kardanova, Vasilyeva, & Ludlow, 2015). It is a standardized assessment tool designed to measure theoretically and empirically grounded levels of mathematicalknowledge acquisition: procedural, conceptual, and functional. Subjective well-being at school was measured with the Russian version of the Brief Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School Scale (Tian, Wang, & Huebner, 2015), and the Russian version of the Classroom Friendship Questionnaire (Turilova-Miščenko & Raščevska, 2008) was applied to measure cooperation and hostility. The sample included 144 fourth grade students with different levels of academic achievement. One-way ANOVA indicated differences in the level of satisfaction with the school, the number of friends, the frequency of cooperation with classmates and the frequency of hostility in communication with classmates between students with a lower level of academic achievement and students with a higher level of academic achievement. At the same time, there was no difference in the affective component of subjective well-being. Attitude to Ambiguity and Agreement with Parents’ Beliefs as Predictors of Attitude Shift to Religion The subject of this research is the correlation of personality traits of people who have changed their attitude to religion after the age of 16: the level of intolerance/tolerance for ambiguity, the level of orientation to social desirability and the level of agreement with parents` beliefs depending on course of changes. The research sample consisted of 492 people from 16 to 69, 102 of which answered questions in person, whereas others - via Internet forms. The results showed that religious people have significantly higher level of intolerance for ambiguity, orientation to social desirability and agreement with parents` beliefs on religion and significantly lower level of tolerance for ambiguity. Stepwise binary logistic regression showed the following results in the sample on the whole: whether a person will become religious or not as an adult can be predicted in the first step by  agreement with parents` beliefs on religion, in the second step – by the level of intolerance for ambiguity and in the third step – by the level of orientation to social desirability. However, the record of course of attitude changes to religion showed that when switching from disbelief to belief, more contribution is made by attitude to ambiguity: by the level of intolerance for ambiguity for men, the level of tolerance for ambiguity for women, and in terms of faith preservation – by agreement with parents` beliefs on religion. People become religious rather attempting to avoid ambiguity of situation, and remain religious mostly in agreement with parents` position.