Armyanskii ln., 4-2,
Moscow, 101000, Russia


Akopov Garnik 1
  • 1 Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, 65/67 M. Gorky Str., Samara, 443099, Russian Federation

New Explanation of Consciousness: The Approach of M. Graziano

2022. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 169–182 [issue contents]
The article reviews the theory by M. Gra­ziano, presented in his book “Consciousness”  and the “Social Brain2. Its novelty and essential features of the conceptual identification of consciousness are determined. Comparison of the main provisions of the attention schema theory with a number of other concepts of consciousness is carried out. The author's composition of the foundations of the theory is quite representative and covers neuroscientific, cognitive, clinical, psychological and other scientific data. The basic concept in Graziano's theory is "attention" in its neuroscientific interpretation. The author sees eight essential points of similarity between attention and consciousness: purposefulness (intentionality) of consciousness as an equivalent of directionality, that is, focusing attention; a single substance or source of consciousness ("I" as a brain function) and attention (selective function of the brain); selectivity in the manifestations of both consciousness and attention; graduation, i.e. distinct differentiation: center-periphery in the work of consciousness and attention; equal connection of consciousness and attention with the processes of memory, perception, affect, thinking, etc.; equal connection with action and behavior; equal "immersion depth" in the information space; impossibility of consciousness without attention. The difference between this identification of consciousness and those previously proposed in classical and modern cognitive psychology of consciousness consists in a new structural design of attention, which allows the author to see a number of advantages of his theory in comparison with other informational and social theories of consciousness. This, in particular, is the prospect of overcoming the dualism known since the time of Descartes, which has been named a “hard problem” in the modern science of consciousness, as well as the reciprocity of individual and socio-perceptual consciousness substantiated by the author. The categories of information and representation are equally important for the author's provisions on the corresponding processes of modeling and shaping consciousness, but the functions of representation are not clearly defined. The new concept of consciousness enriches the contemporary studies of consciousness, tackling one of the most difficult problems of the contemporary science.
Citation: Garnik A. (2022) Novoe ob"yasnenie soznaniya: podkhod M. Gratsiano [New Explanation of Consciousness: The Approach of M. Graziano]. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, vol. 19, no 1, pp. 169-182 (in Russian)
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