Armyanskii ln., 4-2,
Moscow, 101000, Russia


Shalom Schwartz1
  • 1 National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation

Cultural Value Orientations: Nature & Implications of National Differences

2008. Vol. 5. No. 2. P. 37–67 [issue contents]
This paper introduces a theory and methodology for measuring cultural values suggested by S. Schwartz. The nature of cultural values as basic elements of a culture is analyzed. Basing on empirical research conducted by the author in 84 countries of the world, eight cultural regional types are distinguished. It is also suggested that countries vary along seven scales of cultural values, i.e., Affiliation, Intellectual and Affective Autonomy, Hierarchy, Equality, Skills, and Harmony. Correlations between values and the level of socio-economic development, as well as types of economical and political systems are demonstrated.
Citation: Schwartz S. (2008) Kul'turnye tsennostnye orientatsii: priroda i sledstviya natsional'nykh razlichiy [Cultural Value Orientations: Nature & Implications of National Differences]. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, vol. 5, no 2, pp. 37-67 (in Russian)
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