Armyanskii ln., 4-2,
Moscow, 101000, Russia


Evgeny Osin 1, Dmitry Leontiev 1
  • 1 National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation

Multidimensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience: Structure and Properties

2013. Vol. 10. No. 1. P. 55–81 [issue contents]

An original psychometric instrument, the Multidimensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience (MILE-3), is presented, operationalizing an original theoretical model of personal attitudes towards loneliness. According to the model, acceptance of loneliness as an existential fact opens up a the possibility to of appreciatinge situations of solitude and to use their resources productively, in the process gaining a deeper self-awareness that promotes personal growth. Conversely, non-acceptance (or fear) of loneliness leads to an avoidance of solitude and to continuous search for social contacts, which results in avoidance of self-encounter and becomes an obstacle for personal growth. The MILE-3 contains 40 items (a short 24-item version is also available) grouped into 3 scales measuring the intensity of experienced loneliness and two opposite attitudes towards solitude and loneliness (positive solitude and dependence on communication). Three online samples were used (N=2298, N=144, and N=117). The structural validity of the instrument was established using structural equation modeling in the largest sample. The resulting scales were reliable (α in the .81-.90 range). Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was provided by predictable associations with measures of subjective well-being (satisfaction with life, subjective happiness), life meaning, extraversion, affiliation motivation (need for acceptance and fear of rejection), and alienation. Using person-oriented approach methodology and cluster analysis, 4 distinct patterns of perceived loneliness were discovered and described.

Citation: Osin, E. N., & Leontiev, D. A. (2013). Differentsial'nyi oprosnik perezhivaniya odinochestva: struktura i svoistva [Multidimensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience: Structure and Properties]. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 10(1), 55-81. (in Russian)
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